Pre-Solo Written Test

Alex Caldwell CFI-G

Updated 08/17/2014

Available from:


Nomenclature - draw a line from the listed terms below to the corresponding part on the glider picture.

Rudder                                                    Right Aileron              Left Aileron                           Canopy

Vertical Stabilizer                                    Dive Brake                 Wing Strut                             Nose

Horizontal Stabilizer                                Wheel                        Pitot Tube                              Ground Handle

Elevator                                                   Skid 


2. Why does a glider have?

   1. Ailerons    ________________________________________

   2. Elevator    ________________________________________

   3. Rudder     ________________________________________


3. What does a wing do?


4. What is angle of attack?


5. Name 3 things that happen when angle of attack is changed.





6. What color is the release knob in a 2-33?   In the Blanik or European gliders?


7. Why does a glider have a yaw string?  Who invented the yaw string?



8. In the following drawing, which rudder pedal should be pressed to straighten the yaw string?




9. Before making a turn, a pilot should always _________________________?


10. What turns a glider? __________________________________________


11. Name the three axes of the glider about which it can move.

      A. ________________________________

      B. ________________________________

      C. ________________________________


12. When the glider moves about any axis, it rotates about the _________________________________________.


13. The glider fuselage tends to fly streamlined through the relative airflow because of the  ____________________ effect and thus is stable about the yaw (vertical) axis.


14. The glider tends to fly with its wings level because the  wings are mounted on the fuselage at an angle called ___________________________________________.


15. Pitch stability is achieved by a balancing act between the horizontal stabilizer, wing lift and the ________________________.


16.  When a pilot 'flies' a glider, he is only controlling 3 things. They are:

         A. ____________________________________________ .

         B. ____________________________________________ .

         C. ____________________________________________ .


17.  In a shallow turn the pilot will need to hold some aileron (into, against)  _____________ the turn because of the __________________    stability.


18. In a steep turn, the pilot will need to hold some aileron (into, against) ______________ the turn because of the

___________________________  tendency.


19. During all turns, some ________________________ will be needed in the direction of the turn.


20. What is meant by popped rivets?


21. What would cause a popped rivet?


22. What are some common signs of possible hidden damage?


23. What would you look for when checking the tow release mechanism?


24.  How many safety pins inside the fuselage are to be checked through the access hole behind the rear seat of a 2-33?


25. What would distorted hinges on the ailerons or dive brakes indicate?


26. What should a student pilot do if he finds evidence of damage or excessive wear?


27. What documents are required to be in the glider? Hint: OAR


28. Assume that you weigh 118 lbs.  and are flying solo.  Using the information below,  calculate a weight and balance for the 2-33 N2745H.  Are you within weight and balance limitations?


Schweizer SGS 2-33 N2745H Serial # 525

Max Weight = 1040 lbs.

Permitted CG Range    =    78.2 in.  to   86.1 in. aft of datum.

Top of Form 1








Empty wt. & cg







Front Pilot Weight







Rear Pilot Weight







Ballast (if used)





















Bottom of Form 1


If not in weight and balance limits, how much ballast do you need to carry?


29.  What should you look for when checking the pitot tube?


30.  What is a stall?


31. There are 6 indications that a stall is about to occur.  What are they?


32. Where on the wing does the stall first occur?


33. When the wing stalls, the glider pitches nose down. Why?


34. What is the minimum stalling speed of a 2-33?


35. Can a glider stall at a higher speed?  How? Name factors that can cause the glider to stall at speeds higher than  minimum stall speed.



36. Why is it important to practice stalls?


37. How is a normal recovery made from a forward stall?


38. If a wing starts to 'drop' during a forward stall, how should that wing be raised?  Why?


39. Turning stalls are most dangerous close to the ground. Why? When is this most likely to happen?


40. How do you prevent turning stalls close to the ground?


41. A turning stall is most dangerous when entered from a:

     1. Shallow turn

     2. Medium turn

     3. Steep turn


42. Give a step-by-step recovery procedure from a turning stall.


43. The one important thing NOT to do during the first steps of a turning stall recovery is __________________________?


44. From the standpoint of turning stalls, the safest turn is a:

   1. Shallow turn.

   2. Medium turn.

   3. Steep turn.


45. What is the glide ratio of a 2-33 with the dive brake fully open?


46. What is the maximum glide ratio of a 2-33 with the dive brakes closed?


47. Below 1000 feet AGL,  a pilot should never ____________________ ?


48. What is the three item check list accomplished at the I.P. ?


49. What is the primary judgmental decision to be made during the downwind leg?


50. What two checkpoints are used during the downwind leg?


51. What would you do if you experienced excessive sink during the downwind leg?


52. How should the turn into base be made?


53. Upon completion of the turn into base leg, you realize that you are too high. What will you do?


54. You are on base leg ready to turn final and realize that you are too high. There is one type of pattern that should be avoided. What is it?


55. On final it is important to maintain a constant __________________ and freeze a "spot' on the canopy by using your _________________ ?


56. On final you realize that you are above a 5:1 glide slope. As a student pilot you should ____________________?


57. As an experienced pilot, when might you find the TLAR method most useful?



58. The following graph is for a 2-33 at 790 lbs solo. 


     Use the graph to show:   1.   minimum sinking speed.

                                              2.   The speed for best L/D in still air.

                                              3.   The speed to fly to a goal on the ground against a 15mph headwind.

                                              4.   The speed to fly in 200fpm sink if the climb  expected in the next thermal is 200fpm







59. The following graph is for a Schweizer 2-33 flown dual at 1040 lbs gross weight.


    Use the graph to show:   1.   minimum sinking speed.

                                              2.   The speed for best L/D in still air.

                                              3.   The speed to fly to a goal on the ground against a 15mph headwind.

                                              4.   The speed to fly in 200fpm sink if the climb  expected in the next thermal is 200fpm



59.     In the following graph, show where the maneuvering speed or Va is represented.

       Explain the significance and importance of the maneuvering speed to the pilot of a 2-33.



60.  List the tow signals below:

a) Tow plane waggles rudder on ground: ____________

b) Glider waggles rudder on ground: _____________

c) Tow plane waggles rudder in air: ____________

d) Tow plane rocks wings in air: ____________

e) Tow plane fish tails in air: ____________

f) Glider rocks wings on tow while in normal position: ______________

g) Glider fish tails or yaws back and forth on tow: _______________

h) Glider moves out to one side, usually to the left side of towplane, and rocks wings: ____________

i) Glider moves out to right: _____________


61.  What actions would you take if the canopy came unlatched after the glider lifted off?

62.  What special use airspace(s) do we have near our airport and where is it(they)  located?

63.  When two or more aircraft are approaching an airport for the purpose of landing,

 which one has the right of way?

   a) The slower aircraft

   b) The faster aircraft

   c) The lower aircraft

   d) The more maneuverable aircraft

64.  In turning stall recovery, using ailerons to level the wings before un-stalling the wing

will have what effect and why?


65.  What documents must you have in your possession as a student pilot to fly solo?

   a) Student pilot certificate only

   b) Student pilot certificate and logbook

   c) Student pilot certificate, logbook and radio license

   d) None of the above

66.  What documents must be in the aircraft in whenever it is flown?

   a) Registration certificate, airworthiness and logbooks , photo ID

   b) Registration certificate, airworthiness and operating limitations, (can be in form of Pilot’s Operating Handbook and/or placards)   and a photo ID

   c) Registration certificate, airworthiness and bill of sale

   b) Registration certificate, airworthiness, weight and balance and bill of sale

67.  Which instrument(s) will become inoperative if the static vent becomes clogged?

   a) Airspeed Only

   b) Airspeed and Altimeter Only

   c) Airspeed, Altimeter, Variometer

   d) Altimeter Only

68.  What are the differences of a spiral dive and a spin? How do you recover from each


69.    What would you do if you found yourself  through misjudgment or a tow plane problem,  or other  problems unable to make it to the normal IP at the normal pattern altitude and were  at the locations and altitudes marked in this map? Draw lines on the map to show where you would go.

70.    You are in the 2-33 and you are at 800 ft. AGL over the IP and entering your downwind leg for a right downwind for runway 13 at Avenal.  You suddenly see Morgan Hall in his Duo Discus just below you at about 600 ft AGL circling just west of  the IP.  As a student pilot what should you do?

1.      Give way to Morgan, and break off your approach until he lands, since he is at a lower altitude and therefore has the right of way.

2.      Give way and break off your approach,  since he has a better glider,  and has more experience, and you are only a lowly  student pilot in a 2-33.

3.      Be polite, give way and break off your approach.   Switch to a left downwind for runway 09  and land on that towplane runway in order not interfere with Morgan’s plans or  the higher performance DuoDiscus.

4.      Continue your approach as planned.  Morgan will probably stay up even,  though he is lower than you, or if he can’t stay up,  he will be able to extend his pattern further than you because of the higher performance of his ship,  He also knows you are a student pilot in a lower performance  ship,  and will adjust his pattern around your needs.  However, keep him in sight,  and monitor his position in any case, as even though he is very good, he may not see you.


71.    . You are landing on Runway 13 at Avenal. You have turned final and are lined up to land on Runway 13. All of a sudden, the towplane and a glider start rolling on takeoff on runwy 31 coming right at you. What should you do?  Why?

1.      Make an immediate 180 turn,  and land straight ahead to the north, even if you end up in a the field to the north of the airport.

2.      Keep going on your approach to runway 13 but stay as far to the right as you can. Pass him to the right and land on the right hand side of runway 13. If there is no room on the right side of the runway, land in the clear area between the three runways, keeping clear of the windsock and wind T or other obstructions in that area.

3.      Make a series of 360 deg. turns until he passes you, then land on Runway 13,

4.      Make a 90 deg,.turn to the right and land in the field just to the North of Loyal’s old house heading west.


72.    You are flying  at 5000ft. MSL  under a well developed Cumulus cloud in strong lift in Class E airspace.  What do the CFR’s say about how close you can fly to the bottom of this cloud?  Why?

a.       1000 ft.

b.      500 ft.

c.       2000ft

d.      As close as you want, as long as you do not go into the cloud.


73.    You suddenly realize the lift mentioned above has become so strong that you are getting sucked up into the cloud.  What should you do?


a.       Open dive brakes fully, slip the glider,  and head for the closest edge of the cloud you can see.

b.      Keep circling, as cloud flying allows you to get much higher than staying below the clouds and you will get a much longer cross country flight that way.

c.        Enter a steep and fast spiral dive,  as this will get you down quicker.

d.        Enter a slip with full rudder deflection.


74.    In the above situation, you realize it is too late,  and you have allowed yourself  to be sucked into the cloud,  and have lost visual contact with the horizon and the ground.  What should you do?


a.       Some gliders may fly hands off and not exceed the design load or airspeed limitations in a “benign spiral” mode. You have practiced this in your glider and will try to get the glider to do a benign spiral.


b.       Enter a spiral dive to get down as fast as possible.



c.       Enter a Spin as soon as possible before you get into a graveyard spiral and can no longer stall the glider without exceeding the positive G load limit.


d.       The 2-33 has terminal velocity dive brakes. Open them fully, and the glider  will not be able to exceed it’s redline  speed, no matter what attitude it gets into.


75.     What type of airspace is enclosed by the dashed blue line in the following sectional chart clip?

What type of equipment would the aircraft need and what procedures need to be followed in order to enter this type of airspace?




76.     What type of airspace is enclosed by the circular markings around Fresno Air Terminal?

What type of aircraft equipment and what procedures does the pilot need to follow in order to enter this type of airspace? What are the equipment requirements for over-flying the top of this airspace in a glider at an altitude above 4400 ft MSL and 10,000ft MSL?  What equipment is required for over-flying this airspace in a glider above 10,000ft and below 18,000ft?



77.  You are at an altitude of 5000ft. MSL directly over the Avenal Airport.  What type of airspace are you in? i.e. A, B, C, D, E, F, or G?   What are the minimum flight visibility and cloud clearance requirements for daylight VFR flight in this airpace?




  1. You are making a pattern tow at Avenal airport and release at 1000ft AGL above the airport.  What type of airspace are you in?  i.e. Class A, B, C, D, E, F, or G?  How high does this airspace extend?   What are the minimum flight visibility and cloud clearance  requirements for daylight VFR flight in this airspace?





79.   You are on a cross country flight and get low near Visalia Airport. You are considering landing at Visalia Airport and notice on your sectional chart that it is surrounded by a zone of airspace outlined by a dashed  purple line.  What type of airspace is this?  i.e. A, B, C, D, E, F, or G?  Why does Visalia have this?   What flight visibility and cloud clearance is required to land at Visalia Airport in the daytime under VFR flight rules?



  1. What radio frequency do we use at Avenal to announce our position and intentions to other aircraft in the area?  Will powered aircraft transiting our area or intending to land at Avenal be likely to know about or use this frequency? 


    1. 121.5 Mhz
    2. 122.9 Mhz
    3. 123.3 Mhz

                                                                                               d.      122.0  Mhz


  1. What is indicated by the gray colored line marked VR 1257 near the Priest Valley VOR in the following sectional chart clip?  What dangers do you need to be aware of near these areas?



  1. What is indicated by the shaded magenta area surrounding the Firebaugh airport?  How would this affect visibility and cloud clearance requirements for VFR flight if approaching the Firebaugh Airport?


  1. What is the airspace  marked inside the red circle near Phoenix on this sectional chart clip?  Are these areas  marked on your sectional chart?  How do you get information on the existence of this  type of airspace before a flight?  What all the reasons you can think of that this type of airspace is created?   What happens if you enter this type of airspace?



  1. At what altitude are you as the pilot in command  required to use Oxygen when flying a glider?


  1. At what altitude is your passenger in a glider required to use supplemental oxygen?



  1. You are wanting to use a parachute in your glider.  How recently must the parachute have been inspected and repacked by a licensed parachute rigger?






Consider the following 24 hour RASP forecast for Avenal presented in a SkewT-LogP format. RASP Skew T Log P diagrams represent a forecast of temperature and humidity at various altitudes, which is very important in forecasting soaring conditions. In other cases, the same type of diagram can be used  to plot  actual sounding data recorded from sounding balloons.  Radiometers are now available that can measure these values from the ground without sending up a sounding balloon.


  1. Will there be cumulus cloud development and if so, how high will the cloud base be?


  1. Will there be over-development?


  1. Will there be any precipitation?


  1. What direction and velocity will the winds be at 10000ft MSL (700mb level)?


  1. What will be the surface temperature and dewpoint be at 2100Z?


  1. What will be the temperature and dewpoint at 5000ft MSL (850mb level)?


  1. Will there likely be thunderstorms?


  1. What will be the flight visibility be at the surface? (Hint trick question).


  1. Which lines represent the dry adiabatic lines representing the temperature of a rising parcel of dry air?


  1. Which lines represent the saturated adiabatic lapse lines representing the temperature of a rising parcel saturated with water vapour?


  1. You land at an unfamiliar airport and are approaching an airport marking from the side of the solid yellow lines as in this picture.  What should you do (or not do)?  What if you were coming from the opposite direction, i.e. moving towards the dashed yellow lines from that side of the marking?


98. You are making a flight in a wave and have oxygen aboard. What percent humidity (H2O) is allowed in aviator’s breathing oxygen?

a.)   50%

b.)   25%

c.)    5%

d.)   None (0%)

99.  At what altitude do you as a pilot need to start using Oxygen?

a.)    10,000 ft. MSL,  at all times at or above that altitude.

b.)    18,000 ft. MSL,  at all times at or above that altitude.

c.)     Between 12,500 ft. and 14,000ft  MSL, if you are  that altitude for more than 30 minutes.

d.)    At 12,500 ft MSL and above at all times.

100.                    As a student pilot, you need to have an endorsement from your instructor for continued solo flight every:

a.)    180 days.

b.)   Calendar year.

c.)    3 Calendar months.

d.)   90 days.

101.                     You are on a cross country flight out of Avenal and want to get updated weather information and check for any new TFRs that may have come up since you checked before take-off. What service and frequency could you use on your VHF  radio?

a.)   Flight Watch on 122.0

b.)   Contact Lemoore Control tower on 128.3

c.)    Check New Coalinga airport AWOS on 119.275

d.)    Contact Fresno Approach South on 132.35


102.                     You have a private pilot certificate with airplane category and single engine land class  ratings.  You also have a private pilot certificate with a glider category rating, and an endorsement for self launching in motor gliders.  You are current in powered airplanes with more than 3 take offs and landings in  powered airplane to a full stop within the past 90 days.  However, you have not flown any  glider for the past 6 months. You want to take your 3 grandchildren for rides in your m0tor glider (Lucky you, to have a motor glider!) .   Are you current to do this?

a.)   No.  You must have 3 take-offs and landings in the preceding 90 days in the same Category (glider) and class and type (if type rating required).

b.)    You are OK, since it’s a motor glider and you’re current in a powered airplane.

c.)    You would be OK if it was a pure glider and you had made 3 take-offs and landings using  aero-tow, but since it is a motor glider, you need 3 more separate take-offs and landings to a full stop in a motor glider.

            d.) You make 3 take-offs and landings in the motor glider as sole manipulator of the controls and are now  current in the motorglider.  You can now take the grand-kids up in the motor glider. However, if you want to take them in a pure glider by aero-tow, you would need 3 more take-offs and landings in the pure glider by aero-tow.

103.  Is the motor glider considered a “Class” of glider, similar to “Single Engine Land” or “Multi-Engine Land” in the Airplane category?

 104.  You are taking off at Avenal in the 2-33 on aero-tow.   You are at about 200ft AGL altitude,  and you notice that you and the towplane are not climbing very well. Suddenly,  you see the towpilot “fan” the rudder from side to side fairly rapidly. What does this signal mean and what should you do?

a.) Emergency!  Release now!   You should do this and land straight ahead.

b.) Something is wrong with your glider.  (Think - What types of things could be likely to be wrong with your glider that the towpilot could see?)

c.)  Towpilot needs to go to the bathroom right away,  and will be aborting the tow after turning to bring you back within gliding distance of the airport.

d. ) The towplane is overheating,  and the towpilot needs to speed up to provide more cooling for the engine, and is letting you know so you won’t be alarmed.

Refer to the following SkewT-LogP diagram for Castle Peak:

105.  Approximately what would the thermal index be at 4000ft ?  Would this likely be strong enough for thermals that would sustain a 2-33 sailplane at that altitude?  Is the thermal index a good way to estimate how high the thermals will go?

Thermal index is the difference between the temperature in deg. F. of the air at a given altitude and the temperature of a parcel of air at the surface and at the surface  temperature and lifted adiabatically to that altitude from the surface.   


106. Based on the expected boundary layer top from this diagram, what would be the approximate thermal strength you might expect?  How do you calculate that?

(Max lift will be approx 1 kt. for each 1000ft of the expected boundary layer top in the best thermals. Average thermals will be about 2/3 that. Source:  Kai Gersten “Introduction to X-country soaring.” )


The surface temperature at 12:00 noon is 30 deg. C and the dewpoint is 20 deg. C If cumulus clouds form, how high will the cloudbase be? Does this mean the cumulus will actually form?

The Bradbery rule: ( temp in C  - dewpoint temp in C. )  x 400 =  cloudbase in ft.

30-20 x 400 = 4000ft.

Later at 3:00 p.m. the temperature rises to 37 deg. C. The dewpoint has not changed. How high will the cloudbase be then?

(37 – 20) x 400 = 6800 ft.


Another rule is to (T – T dewpoint in Deg. F. / 4.4  )  X 1000 = cloudbase AGL


Refer to the following “Koch Chart” for estimating effect of temperature and pressure  altitude on required take-off distance and rate of climb:

According to this chart,  if the pressure altitude (altimeter reading at the surface with Kolsman window set to 29.92 in. )  is 1500ft. and the temperature is 105 Deg. F. what would the percent increase in take-off distance be compared to a standard day at sea level? What would the percent decrease in climb rate be compared to a standard day at sealevel?


Refer to the following FD (Winds Aloft ) forecast:

DATA BASED ON 021800Z    
VALID 030000Z   FOR USE 2000-0300Z. TEMPS NEG ABV 24000
FT  3000    6000    9000   12000   18000   24000  30000  34000  39000
BIH      9900    1706+16 2505+09 2429-06 2335-19 224635 215744 216255
BLH 1914 1914+23 1713+16 2108+10 1917-06 2019-17 183432 183742 195153
FAT 3108 3205+18 9900+14 2406+08 2425-06 2332-19 224335 225145 216154
FOT 3622 3612+14 9900+08 9900+01 2725-11 2632-25 254540 255049 245353
ONT 2407 1805+20 2109+16 2212+10 2308-05 2014-18 182833 183443 194355
RBL 9900 9900+17 2805+09 2711+03 2619-11 2437-23 246238 246947 236754
SAC 2706 9900+17 9900+11 2409+05 2429-09 2440-20 235037 235247 226055
SAN 9900 2107+21 2212+17 2213+10 9900-06 1722-18 182833 183343 184254
SBA 3007 3609+19 3405+14 2606+10 2414-06 2224-19 213734 204044 203955
SFO 9900 9900+17 9900+11 2409+05 2427-08 2435-20 244237 234547 225256
SIY      3310+14 9900+07 2508+00 2626-13 2539-26 245940 246049 235651
WJF      2712+20 2108+15 2310+10 2410-05 2120-18 203534 194044 203855
AST 2706 3214+10 3213+04 3111-02 3608-14 0409-27 072044 082254 990048
IMB              2806+06 2806-02 2612-16 2515-29 243442 234846 233947
LKV              9900+09 2705+00 2429-14 2446-25 236640 236748 236750
OTH 3607 3609+12 9900+05 9900-02 3012-15 3008-27 320745 261449 242347
PDX 3009 3316+09 3013+04 2912-02 3507-15 0310-27 062044 071952 220847
RDM      3309+13 9900+06 9900-02 2810-15 3009-28 271344 243047 233246
GEG      2508+08 2805+03 9900-02 0607-14 0714-26 072842 072852 221747
SEA 9900 3208+07 3312+03 3408-02 0105-14 0513-25 072043 082254 990049
YKM 3010 3010+10 3110+04 2806-02 0509-15 0612-26 072343 072352 221047

For Fresno Air Terminal the wind and temperature at 12000 ft MSL is

1.      240 deg magnetic at 6mph with a temperature of +8 deg F.

2.      240 deg. True at 6 kt. with a temperature of +8 deg C.

3.      24 deg. magnetic at 6 kt. with a temperature of +8 deg. C

4.      240 deg True at 6mph with a temperature of +8 Deg. C.

For Fresno Air Terminal at 9000ft. MSL, the wind and temperature are:

1.      99 deg True, but light and variable with a temperature of +14 deg. C

2.      light and variable, with a temperature of +14 deg. C.

3.      light and variable, with a temperature of +14 deg. F.

4.      99 deg. Magnetic, light and variable with a temp of +14 deg. F.

For Fresno Air Terminal at 30,000 ft MSL, the wind and temperature is:

1.      220 deg.  Magnetic,  at 43mph and a temp of 35 deg F.

2.      220 deg. True at 43 kts. with a temperature of 35 deg. C.

3.      220 deg. True at 43 kts. with a temperature of -35 deg. F.

4.      220 deg True at 43 kts. with a temperature of -35 deg. C.

110. You are ridge soaring in the bowl just NW of Tar Peak. You are just able to maintain a height about even with the top of the ridge. Suddenly you encounter a nice thermal which might allow you to get higher. You are going NW along the ridge, with the ridge to your left. The thermal feels like it might be a little stronger towards your left wing.  You should:

1. Turn right,  away from the ridge until you have reversed direction, then turn left, again away from the ridge,  and go back NW again, in an “S turn” or “figure 8” pattern,  hoping the thermal will still be there for a while, and you might gain some altitude even though you are not circling in the thermal as you would over flat ground when up high. But regardless of what you think the thermal is doing, always turn away from the ridge. Always approach the ridge from a shallow angle so you can always turn away from it.  Never approach the ridge straight on at a 90 deg. angle.

2. Turn left, into the ridge and continue circling in order to stay in the strong core of the thermal and get therefore  above the ridge top where you will have more clearance above the ground and can relax more.  Circle very tightly, with a much steeper  bank that you usually use in order to gain a bit more space between yourself and the ridge.

3.  Turn left until directly heading towards the ridge straight on. Ride along with the thermal as long as possible as you approach the ridge, but turn away from the ridge to the left or the right when you get too close and start to become uncomfortable.   When ridge soaring conditions exist, the thermals are always very smooth, so you don’ t have to worry about encountering turbulence that might cause you to stall very close to the ground.

4.  Make a turn to the right, away from the ridge, to stay in the thermal for ½ a turn, then resume ridge soaring in the opposite direction.

5. Make a very quick left turn into the ridge, but continue it so that you only approach the ridge head on for as brief a time as possible. When you have completed a 180 deg. turn, continue ridge soaring in the opposite direction.

 111. To carry passengers as a private pilot, you must have:

1.  Have successfully accomplished a  Flight review in the last 24 calendar months.

2. 3 take offs and landings to a full stop within the past 90 days in the same category (class and type if appropriate) of aircraft.

3.  both of the above.

112.  What is an AD?  Who is responsible for assuring that these have been accomplished?


113. What inspections are required for the 2-33?  How can you be sure these have

been accomplished?


114.In calculating a weight and balance why must the CG be within the limits defined in the pilot’s operating handbook or other operating limitations for the glider?  What is the danger(s) of a CG located too far forward (nose heavy)? What is the danger(s)  associated with a CG that is located too far aft?

115. What are the components of an oxygen system? What are the dangers of working with oxygen systems?  How often must an oxygen cylinder be hydrostatically tested to ensure it is sound?

116. What is lost with hypoxia, dehydration and hyperventilation?

117. Why is dehydration at altitude more concerning?

118. What happens to indicated airspeed on take-off at high density altitude?

119. How does high density altitude affect take-offs and landings?

120. Draw a Pitot-Static system. 

121. What happens to the stall speed in turns as the bank increases.

122.  Interpret the following METAR:

METAR KNLC 191756Z 32009KT 10SM SCT140 BKN190 26/13 A2983 RMK AO2 SLP100

     RH/46 T02560133 10256 20172 51007


123. What is deviation as it affects the magnetic compass in an aircraft?

124. What is variation as it affects the magnetic compass in an aircraft?

125. Explain the colored arcs on the airspeed indicator. Many new gliders have a small yellow triangle on the airspeed indicator. What does this represent.

126. What is “maneuvering speed” Va  ?


127. What is the difference between minimum sink speed and best glide or best L/D speed?

128.  Talk about “speed to fly”.


129.  At what speed should you touch down in an off field landing?

130. Review emergency procedures for take off.

131.  Talk about the sequence of procedures for a 200’ rope break.

132. Draw a mountain wave.  Where are the lenticular clouds, if any?  Where are the rotor clouds if any?  What is concering about the rotor? What and where  is the Fohen Gap,  and what does the sailplane pilot need to be concerned about in regards to it? What and where is the Cap Cloud?



133. What are the different types of lift we can experience? What types of weather conditions are favorable for each type?


134. Describe conditions in ridge lift.  Do you need stable or unstable air? How much wind is needed to sustain a glider in ridge lift? At what range of angles must the wind meet the ridge to allow you to expect to find lift?  Draw a cross section of a ridge and show where you could expect to find the best lift.  Where might you expect to find turbulence? If you are trying to ridge soar what weather conditions related to atmospheric stability are more dangerous? Stable vs. Unstable conditions?


135. If you have wind from the NW near Monterey blowing toward the coastal mountains and hot San Joaquin Valley air what would you expect with regard to flying? Would it be good? What happens to the warm valley air?

136. Referring to a current sectional for Avenal area i.e. the San Francisco and Los Angeles sectionals, identify a class C airport, a class D airport. What do you need to fly into Class D, C, and B airspace. What do you do differently for these spaces?


137.Identify an MOA. Can you fly into this area? What do you need to be aware of here?

138. What is the lifted index? What is the thermal index?

139. What is an LHSO? Identify on the diagram which is the runway and which is the taxiway.

140. Explain what you do differently  when taking off on tow in a glider  in a cross wind as opposed to still wind conditions.


141. Explain what you do differently on final approach,  the flair,  and rollout during a landing in a glider in a cross wind as opposed to still air conditions or a landing directly into the wind. 

142.  What do you do on downwind to assure that you are at the right distance from the runway according to the TLAR method? What do you do if there is a wind that is blowing you away from the runway while on downwind? What if the wind is blowing you closer to the runway on downwind?

143. If there is not a strong wind,  how do you know when to turn from downwind to base leg according to the TLAR method?

144.  What do you normally do with the dive brakes when starting your downwind leg in the pattern?

145.  If you turn from downwind onto base and get strong lift and see you are going to be higher than you wanted to be to get to your chosen aiming point, what can you do? What should you never do?


146. If you turn from downwind to base and see that you are lower than you intended to make it to your aiming point on the runway, what can you do?

 147. What is a LHSO operation?

Ans. Land and Hold Short.

148.Where can you get “Airport Diagrams”?  Why are these important?

149.What is a “Runway Incursion”?

150. How do you get an official weather briefing prior to a cross country glider flight? Name 3 sources.

1. DUAT – computer based briefings.  Run by the Data Transformation Corp. for the FAA.

2. DUATS – very similar to DUATS.  Run by the Computer Science Corp. for the FAA.

3. Flight Service – Phone 1-800-WXBRIEF run for the FAA by Lockheed Martin Corp.

151. You are gliding into a 15 kt headwind  in a 2-33 on the way from Avenal to your goal of New Coalinga Airport. You do not expect any further lift. What is the best speed to fly to arrive at New Coalinga with the most possible remaining altitude reserve? What is a rough rule of thumb to get this speed in your head without referring to  a computer or a polar diagram?

a. Use graphical method by drawing a tangent to the 2-33 polar curve. Move the origin over to the right on to correspond to the strength of the headwind and draw the tangent from there. Draw a vertical line up to the X axis to intercept the speed to fly.

b. Add ½ the wind velocity in kts to the speed for best L/D  in still air from the polar graph. This is a pretty good rule of thumb.

152. If you are getting a wind report from an ATIS, ASIS or AWOS is the wind direction these report given in Magnetic or True?  In the winds aloft forecast are the winds given in degrees True or degrees Magnetic.? What is a simple Menomic that can help you remember?

Written winds like weather forecasts in printed form – FD (winds aloft), FA area forecasts etc are in Degrees True.  Spoken winds like can be broadcast over the radio are in degrees Magnetic.

153. You are facing an off field landing in an unfamiliar location. There is a field you have chosen that has a slight slope of about 8 degrees. The wind is blowing UP the hill at about 10mph.  There are no obstructions if you were to choose to land uphill and downwind vs. downhill and upwind.  In these conditions would it be better to land uphill and downwind or downhill and upwind? Why?

154. In learning how to “coordinate” the ailerons and rudder and keep the yaw string straight while rolling into and out of turns what is a useful maneuver to practice?

Ans: “Rolls on a point”.   Pick a prominent landmark on the horizon. Fly straight at it.  Roll the glider to the right to a certain bank angle,  say 30 degrees of bank is enough. Immediately roll it back to 30 degrees of bank in the other direction. Do not allow the glider to actually start a turn, roll it back the other way as soon as it reaches the chosen bank angle. Try it first using no rudder.  This will dramatically demonstrate why you need the rudder to counteract adverse yaw.  You will notice the nose of the glider yawing off to the left dramatically as you roll to the right.  This is due to the adverse yaw effect that the ailerons have.  The yaw string will  also go way off center.  You will notice the nose of the glider yawing off dramatically to the right as you roll to the left if you do not use rudder.  The goal is to do this steady rolling back and forth right and left and also keep the nose of the glider fixed on the chosen point on the horizon.  The nose of the glider will not appear to  stay on the chosen point on the horizon without using the rudder properly. Now bring in the rudder. If you use the correct amount of rudder for the amount of aileron you are using,  the nose of the glider will remain fixed on the point you have chosen,  and the yaw string will also remain straight throughout the maneuver as you roll to the right and back to the left.  Again, do not let the glider actually start a turn, just keep rolling it steadily from 30 deg right to 30 deg left bank without stopping between. After a while you will get a good feel for how much rudder to use from this maneuver. It is much more effective than trying to look at the yaw string and figuring out which rudder to step on if the yaw string is off center.  Getting the “feel” is much more important than trying to look at the y aw string and stepping on the rudder. The faster the roll rate you desire, not the bank angle is what determines how much rudder to use. The faster your roll rate, the more rudder you need. The slower your roll rate, the less rudder pressure  you will need.  So you want to try doing the rolls on a point both with slow roll rate and faster roll rates. You also need to do it at different airspeeds. It will feel different at slower airspeeds than at faster airspeeds.  But for a give airspeed and roll rate, it will feel the same. In order to keep the nose on the point, it will be very apparent if you are not using enough or using too much rudder. You will also easily see that as soon as you are not using aileron deflection, you immediately do not need the rudder and need to get off of it. Rolling into and out of turns feels just like the rolls on a point. The difference is that when turning, when you arrive at the chosen bank angle, you neutralize the controls and hold the bank angle and allow the glider to turn. You may need some top aileron in an established turn at bank angles more than about 20 deg due to the “over-banking tendency”.

155.Draw a diagram of a total energy compensated variometer system. Assume a mechanical variometer with a Prandtl tube probe or a Braunschweig tube,  rather than an electronically compensated system. Explain the idea of total energy and how it works.  Do not consider the older in line diaphragm type of total energy compensation.  

156.What is a MacCready ring?  What is the MacCready theory,  and how does it apply to flying cross country in a glider in thermals?

157.  Who can sign off an annual inspection on a FAA  certified glider?

158. Who can do the annual condition inspection on a glider licensed under the experimental exhibition and racing category.

159. Who can do the annual condition inspection on a glider licensed as amateur built?

160. Who can do 100 hour inspections on certified gliders used in commercial operations?

170. When MUST you wear a parachute in your glider?


171. What is a “Wave Window”? 

172. Is a transponder  with Mode C altitude reporting capability required to fly over the ceiling of Class B or Class C airpace and  within the 30 n.m. “veil” surrounding class B airspace?

173. How many hours must elapse since the consumption of any alcohol before you may act as pilot or crewmember in an aircraft?

174. What is the legal blood alcohol limit or breath alcohol limit above which you may not act as a pilot or crewmember of an aircraft?

175. Plan a cross country flight between Hollister, CA airport and Taft, CA airport. Get an official weather briefing from DUAT, DUATS or 1-800-WXBRIEF .   Use the  winds aloft forecast for today  to calculate the effect of the wind on your glider ratio over the ground. Figure out how high you might get using a thermal index of -2 as the likely maximum altitude you might achieve.   Use a 2-33 as your chosen sailplane. Assume a 12:1 baseline glider ratio. What would be your go/no go height if you were to try to use one thermal to get to Taft from Hollister based on the winds aloft forecast?   Where would you expect you might find sources of lift along this route?  What are the special use airspace areas you would need to be aware of?